At this point in the game, I calculated to see whether I could advance four steps on the culture track within this round. I was just slightly short! If I had enough, I could win this round. Allen was planning a military victory by attacking my capital, but a cultural victory would end the game during the city actions phase, before the army movement phase. However, Allen's troops were not very well positioned. He needed this round to group his armies together, and then next round to strike at Beijing. That would be too late, because I would have achieved a cultural victory next round before he could attack. So this round he had to launch a different type of attack.
Two lone armies would attack my two smaller cities, not expecting to conquer them, just hoping to whittle down my units. Then two armies would attack Beijing. I didn't have many units, so this was worth a shot for him. Thankfully the Chinese special ability was they could take back one killed unit after every battle. So I didn't lose as many units as Allen had hoped, and since Beijing was walled (also a Chinese special bonus), the planned assault eventually failed. I won a cultural victory, very much helped by the blessings of my ancestors.
Han, Allen and I have now played 4 games of Sid Meier's Civilization. It has become our Game of the Month. This was unplanned. Our previous GOTM was Le Havre which we played 3 times. The next one was supposed to have been War of the Ring but we never got around to it. In these 4 games of Sid Meier's Civilization, coincidentally we have seen all 4 different victory conditions.